s the attachment borne to this minister, that a number of people went

 to St Andrews and bore his mortal remains to Kinross as his place of


 Mr Andrew Small was Parish teacher of Kinross at this period. He

 died 19th March. 1676.

 Rev. James Forsyth translated from Monzie and ordained Minister

 of Kinross 23d Nov.

 The oldest extant Parochial Register of Kinross commences with

 date 8th Oct. 1665. (vide date 1683.)

Lochleven Stone

1667. There was a Curling Club in Kinross as early as this


 1670. Rev. John Blackadder held open air preachings in the

 neighbourhood of Kinross this year.

 1675. The oldest extant Baptismal Record begins with April 1676,

 and ends with 1684.

 Mr John Shaw received to be School-master and precentor of


 1680. The Cutlery and Ironmongery trades said to have been first

 established in Kinross.

 (See dates 1696, 1700, 1724, 1760, 1803, 1809, 1827.)

 1682. The Rev. James Forsyth, minister of Kinross, died.

 In "Historæ Scoticæ Nomenclatura," published at Edinburgh 1682,

 by "Christophorvs Irvinvs," mention is made of Kinross-shire and town

 of Kinrossat p. 117. as follows:

 "Kinrossiana, Kinross-shire. It is a little Shire belonging

 heritably to the Barons of Lochleven, afterwards Earls of Morton; it

 lyeth betwixt Fife and Perthshire.

 Kinrossum, the town of Kinross, lying on a beginning or head of

 a point of land, that runneth into the west side of Lochleven; and

 this is the reason of its name in the old language."

 Probably this is the oldest gazetteer notice of Kinross, and

 must be interesting to every Kinrossian, for it clearly shows that

 when Irving published this bookin 1682the town of Kinross was

 situated on the beginning or head of land that runneth into th

 e west side of the Lochconsequently modern Kinross must refer to

 some date after said year. When Kinross House was built in 1685, the

 proprietor probably thought the old town was too near his residence

 to ensure perfect seclusion, and would encourage its

 removal to the present site, letting his ground at reduced

 feu-duties. In 1708 there were already "47 tofts or steadings" on

 this ground. (see dates 1500, 1708).

 Rev. Henry Christie ordained Minister of Kinross.

 1683. The oldest extant Parochial Register of Kinross, concludes

 with date 13th May, 1683.

 A deed of this date refers to Tullibole and to the Murrays of

 Tullibardine, the chief proprietors in this parish. The Murrays are

 the descendants of the Dukes of Athol.

 1684. The "Flow Moss," near the site of Kinross House, "under


 1685. Kinross-shire, when erected into a county in the year 1426,

 consisted of the parishes of Kinross, Orwell, and part of Portmoak

 only. This year the county was much enlarged having had the parishes

 of Tullibole, Cleish, Barony of Cuthilgowrdy, &c. The

 ollowing is extracted from the Act of 1685, declaring the enlargement

 of the county, viz.:

 "The King and Estates of Parliament,, considering the smallness

 and extent of the Sheriffdom of Kinross, and jurisdiction thereof, to

 support and maintain the state and rank of a distinct shire, as it

 is, and anciently has been; and that it would be of g

 reat advantage and ease to His Majesty's lieges, the several

 heretors, residenters, and inhabitants within the paroches of

 Portmock, Cleish, and Tulliboal, and to the heretors of these several

 parts and portions of land lying in the paroch of Kinross, and

 in the shires of Fife and Perth, and of the barony of Cuthilgourdy,

 lying in the shire of Perth, and belonging to Sir William Bruce, of

 Kinross, be disjoined from the said shires of Fife and Perth, and

 jurisdiction thereof; and joined, annexed, and unite

 d to the shire of Kinross and jurisdiction thereof, unto which the

 said and lands by contigue, and most convenientlyexcepting always

 and reserving the jurisdiction of the lands of Carnboe, Bridgelands,

 Cruick and Cruick-Miln, lying in the paroch of Tilli

 boal and Stewarty of Strathearn, whereof James, Earl of Perth, Lord

 High Chancellour, is heritable Stewart, out of this Act, which is

 declared to be without prejudice thereunto, infringement therof, or

 encroachment thereupon, or to the detriment of other

 heritable stewarty, in any manner of way whatsoever. And that John

 Marquis of Athol, Sheriff Principal of the Sheriffdom of Perth; and

 Margaret Countess of Rothes, and the deceast Charles, Earl of

 Haddington, her husband, heritable Sheriff of the Shire of

 Fife, have for their respective interests, consented to the

 disjunction of the said lands and paroches above mentioned, from the

 shires of Fife and Perth, and to the uniting them to the shire of

 Kinross and heritable jurisdiction thereof, in favours of t

 he said Sir William Bruce, heritable Sheriff of the same, with the

 burden of the valuation, and all other public burdens laid on or to

 be laid on the same; therefore his majesty and estates of Parliament,

 upon the considerations aforesaid, hereby dismembe

 r and disjoin the said several paroches of Portmock, Cleish, and

 Tulliboal, and whole lands contained therein (reserving the

 jurisdiction of the said land, as is reserved), and the said parts

 and portions of land in the paroch of Kinross, lying within the

 said shires of Fife and Perth, and the said lands and barony of

 Cuthilgourdy, from the said shires of Fife and Perth, and

 jurisdictions thereof, for now and ever; and adjoin, unite, annex,

 and incorporate the same to the said Sheriffdom, and heritable Sh

 eriffship of Kinross; and statute, ordain, and declare them in all

 time coming, to be a part of the shire of Kinross, in and to all

 effects and purposes, and particular in point of jurisdiction,

 judicatures civil and criminal, and in all matters private a

 nd publick whatsoever; and the said shire of Kinross is to consist of

 the paroches of Kinross, Orwell, Portmock, Cleish, and Tulliboal, and

 the lands lying within the said paroches, and of the lands and

 baronies of Cuthilgourdy, with the burden of the Val

 uation of the said paroches and lands. Willing and appointing the

 heretors, inhabitants, and possessors of the said lands, in all time

 coming to answer to the courts of the said Sheriffdom of Kinross, and

 to be liable to the jurisdiction of the Sheriffs t

 hereof, in all cases civil and criminal, competent to a Sheriff's

 cognition, and that all legal diligences against the heritors,

 possessors, and inhabitants of the said lands, with all briefs,

 proclamations, and others, be used and execute at the mercat c

 ross of Kinross, head burgh of the said shire; and that there be a

 register kept at Kinross, for all the lands for registration of

 sasines, reversions, and other writs, enjoined by Act of Parliament

 to be registered," &c.

 The county of Kinross, as thus enlarged, is bounded on the east

 by Auchmoor Bridge. The western parts are bounded by the Devon,

 giving a breadth of about 12 miles. On the North it is bounded by

 Damhead; and on the south by Kelty Bridge; between which pla

 ces the distance is about 10 miles. The area of the whole county does

 not exceed 70 square miles, or 44,800 imperial acres.

 Kinross-House re-builtthat is, it was finished this year. The

 previous house or fortalice was known by the name of Newhouse,

 probably to distinguish it from some older building standing at the

 time of its erection. It belonged to and was for a long tim

 e the residence of the Earls of Morton. When "Newhouse" and its

 domains were purchased it was with the view to erect a noble

 residence for James VII. in the event of his not succeeding to the

 throne of Britain.*

 The architect of this magnificent housenow known as Kinross

 House was Sir William Bruce, who was also the architect of Holyrood

 House, Hopetoun House, &c. As James VII. ascended the throne in 1685,

 Kinross House was not required for a Royal residence,

 and soon after it became the property of Sir William Bruce,

 afterwards a great benefactor of the town. For notices of Kinross

 House see dates 1706, 1723, 1769. There is a tradition that Kinross

 House was built from fines levied on the covenanters.

 1687. A bridge of three arches built over the Queich at the south

 end of the town by Sir William Bruce. (See date 1810.)

 An old note, in alluding to Lochleven, says, "the South Queche

 is a famous clear broad running burn and one of the principle feeders

 of the loch." It is still "a famous broad clear running burn," and no


 "Twill murmur on a thousand years,

 And flow as now it flows."

 1688. Rev. John Gray, minister of Orwell, translated to


 Orwell Parochial Register has its first entries this year.

 1689. Rev. Henry Christie "ejected" from the charge of Kinross

 parish for not praying for William and Mary.

 Rev. William Spence ordained minister of Kinross.

 1690. Kinross, Cleish, and Orwell, were in the Presbytery of

 Dunfermline as early as this period.

 Rev. William Hackstoun, minister of Cleish, "remitted his

 charge." Lochleven Castle had one of its turrets repaired by Sir

 William Bruce of Kinross House.

 The present "Town of Kinross," most probably originated about

 this period. (See dates1500, 1682 and 1708.)

 1693. An hospital projected at this period "for certain puir of

 the parish of Kynross, but it was never caryed into effect, money was

 left to be distributed to them instead." Those on "The Roll" are

 designated as being on "The Hospital Fund."

 1696. There appears to have been only a few hands engaged at the

 cutlery trade at this period. (See dates 1680, 1700, 1760, and 1803.)

 1697. A Bridge of three arches built over the Leven, near


 The "flow moss," in the domain of Kinross House, thoroughly

 drained and laid out.

 1698. Lochleven Castle, for some time before this period had been

 uninhabited and neglected. This year it became, it would appear, "ane

 utter ruin and of a melancholie aspect," and this year may therefore

 be considered the last year of its martial and dom

 estic history. But an interest in the Castle of Lochleven will never

 cease to exist so long as Scottish history is read and appreciatedso

 long will its memorable historical associations command attention and

 evoke fervent emotion. "The bard of Lochleven,

 " the amiable Michael Bruce has some very appropriate lines on the

 old castle in its ruinous state, which are worthy of a place here. He


 "No more its arches echo to the noise

 Of joy and festive mirth; no more the


 Of blazing taper through its windows beams,

 And quivers on the undulating wave;

 But naked stand the melancholy walls,

 Lash'd by the wintry tempests, cold and


 And whistle mournfully through the

 empty hall,

 And piecemeal crumble down the tower to


 1699. Rev. Robert Macgill ordained minister of Kinross.

 1700. The Parish of Kinross about this date contained a

 population of 1280; of the town of Kinross, 620. According to the

 Session Records then, a part of the Kirk-Session perambulated the

 street during public worship and made a report of their "seeings an

 d doings" to the Session. In some places these "perambulators" were

 known as "the Moral Police" and "Seizers," when they laid hold of a

 delinquent, or any thing he chanced to be carrying.

 At this period there were "about 200 weavers in Kinross; a

 number of cutlers and shoemakers, one church, and two schools," and

 about a population of 450.

 John Row appointed schoolmaster of Kinross 11th Sept., and

 shortly afterwards precentor and Session Clerk.

 1702. A stone quarry at "Nivieston," Cleish, in "full working

 order" as early as 1702.

 1703. Rev. Ebenezer Erskine ordained minister of Portmoak parish.

 (See date 1731.)

 Portmoak oldest extant Parochial Register commences this year.

 (See date 1659.)

 1705. Professor Thomas Crawford, "a gentleman renouned for his

 great learning, especially for his skill in History and antiquities,"

 had his residence at Clashlochie at this period.

 1706. Sir Robert Sibbald, the author of "the History Ancient and

 Modern of the Sheriffdom of Fife and Kinross," visited Kinross this

 Summer, collecting materials for his history. Referring to Kinross he

 says. "the town is situated in the centre of the Hig

 hway between the North-Ferry and Perth." Probably by "centre of the

 highway" he means midway between North Queensferry and Perth.

 "'Tis the head burgh of the Shire, it has been much enlarged of

 late with several new buildings, and some tradesmen of several

 employments have been brought to it by Sir Wm. Bruce. It is well

 provided with necessaries for the accommodation of passengers

 &c." Perhaps it was Sir William Bruce that brought the cutlery and

 ironmongery trades to Kinross. (See date 1680.) Referring to Kinross

 House, then recently built, he says:"The great avenue, with a large

 gate of curious architectureas all the work of th

 e great house isbegins at a small distance from the middle of the

 town upon the east side, and hath enclosures of planting on each

 side. The house has several courts; upon the North side of it, near

 to the loch, is the manor called New-house, the seat of

 the Earls of Mortoun; and upon the East side is the parish church.

 The old castle of Lochleven stands in an island in the north-west

 part of the loch, at half a mile's distance or so now from the shore.

 Sir William Bruce drained a great deal of ground at

 the west end of the loch, and thereby did recover much ground, where

 now he has orchards and large parks, well planted, part of which

 formerly was flow-moss, which is firm ground now, fertile, of good

 grass, and full of all sorts of trees, which give bot

 h shelter and a fine prospect to the building."

 James Paterson appointed schoolmaster of Kinross, 10th June, and

 shortly afterwards to the offices of Precentor and Session Clerk.

 1708. According to an old document, there were 47 'tofts,' or

 steadings, in Kinross this year.

 1709. Robert, only son of the fourth Lord Burleigh of Burleigh

 Castle, who had in 1707 "formed a violent attachment to a rustic

 beauty, and was in consequence sent on his travel abroad that he

 might forget her," returned this year from his travels, and on

 hearing of her marriage to Mr Henry Stenhouse, schoolmaster of

 Inverkeithing, "he went instantlie to the schoolmaster's house, at

 Inverkeithing, and schot Stenhouse through the left shoulder".

 Stenhouse died ten days thereafter. Young Burleigh was tried

 for this murder on 4th August, 1709, and condemned to be beheaded on

 29th November; he escaped in disguise from his prison, and after many

 wanderings and concealments "in the hollow trunks of old trees, on

 the ancestoral domain, and other places, he elude

 d justice. He turned up in 1715, joined the rebels and was

 attainted." An old hollow ash tree, often the place of old Burleigh's

 retreat, near Burleigh Castle, was ever after known as "Burleigh's

 Hole." This tree had its top swept off by the high winds, d

 uring the winter of 1808-9, and was completely blown down to within a

 few feet of the root on old Handsel-Monday, 1822; it stood about 20

 feet distant of the west wall of the great tower.

 1710. Sir William Bruce, Kinross House, Kinross, died.

 1712. Rev. Alexander Barton ordained minister of the united

 parishes of Tullibole and Fossoway, 23rd April; died 14th Jan., 1716.

 1713. Rumbling Bridge built this year by William Gray, mason, a

 native of Saline. This refers to the underarch. It is thrown over the

 narrow chasm at a height of 86 feet above the Devon water. The span

 of the arch is 22 feet, and breadth 11 feet, and had

 no parapet defences(vide 1816.)

 1714. Part of the rebel insurgents in Kinross. It seems that many

 of them "took the loan of things and forgot to return them."! The

 celebrated "Rob Roy" appears to have been in Kinross on this


 1715. James Paterson, parish schoolmaster, deposed by the

 Committee of the Synod of Fife, in consequence of "a disagreeable

 quarrel he had anent the precentorship."

 1716. Robert Coventry elected parish schoolmaster of Kinross, 26

 Nov. and shortly afterwards precentor and Session Clerk.

 1717. Rev. Alexander Ure admitted minister of the united parishes

 of Tullibole and Fossoway, 25th April; died 7th April, 1742.

 1718. (The Rev Robert McGill, Kinross, is the subject of an

 article called 'Endorism . . Spirits that trouble the Minister's

 House of Kinross', ie. poltergeists ð Ed)

 1719. The celebrated heroic poem "Hardy-knute," was first

 published this yearanonymously. Great curiosity manifested as to the

 authorship. The critics were divided in opinion. They, however,

 confined their remarks to two persons only: viz., to Sir John B

 ruce of Kinross House, Kinross, and to Elizabeth Halkett, his

 sister-in-law, wife of Sir Henry Wardlaw of Pitreavie. They both

 denied the authorship. Sir John, on being questioned and pressed

 regarding it, avowed that he "found the poem in a vault of Dunf

 ermline Abbey, written on Vellum, in a fair gothic character, but so

 much defaced by time that the tenth part was not legible." The Lady,

 on being questioned, pretended that she "found the poem on shreds of

 paper employed for what is called the bottoms of

 clues." These equivocating answers show that both parties "knew all

 about it." It is now generally allowed that Dame Elizabeth Halkett

 was the authoress.

 1722. Captain William Crawfurd of Powmylne bequeathed to the

 minister and kirk-session of Orwell £100 sterling "for the use of the

 poor in the parish of Orwell, born and living in the parish

 virtuously and honestly." The interest of this sum is dealt out

 annually to the poor.*

 Daniel Defoe, the celebrated author of "Robinson Crusoe" and

 other works, visited Kinross this year on his tour, collecting notes

 for his work, which was afterwards published, entitled "A journey

 through Scotland." Referring to Kinross, he in this work s

 ays:"The Earls of Morton have been governors and proprietors of this

 lake and castle from the year 1353, till the reign of King Charles

 the Second; that it was purchased by that great architect, Sir

 William Bruce, who built a noble palace on the banks of

 this lake, and joining to the town of Kinross. This is by much the

 finest seat I have yet seen in Scotland. It is built of Free Stone,

 adorned with columns of the Corinthian order; the offices under

 ground are all vaulted, and galleries of communication

 paved with stone, are the noblest I have seen anywhere. The great

 staircase is the same as at Melvil; the great saloon that goes from

 it is two storey high, with a lanthorn at top, as at Montague House

 at London. The great saloon is crowded with pictures,

 and there are two good whole lengths of King Charles the First and

 his Queen. The great avenue from the town of Kinross is the noblest

 you can imagine. You enter it by a pair of stately stone gates, and

 in a quarter of a mile you reach the outer court, w

 ith a pavilion, stables, and coachhouses, on each corner. The inner

 court is beautiful, adorned with green grass plots; and on each side

 of this court, and behind the house are the gardens. There are other

 two avenues from the outer court, that run to the

 lake on one side, and through a wood on the other, there are also

 some curious vistoes cut through this wood. This lake is full of

 fish, particularly the finest fish in the world; and the town of

 Kinross adjoining is a good market town." Defoe takes no f

 urther notice of the town, nor does he allude to its trade and


 1723. The ancient house or castle of Kinross, which stood on a

 site adjacent to the present house, and commonly known as "New

 House," was this year entirely removedmany of the stones had been

 used in the walls of the house built in 1685, and also in encl

 osure walls.

 1724. This year there were in Kinross "35 cutlers; 10 in the iron

 trade: 22 shoemakers; and 320 weavers."

 1725. It would appear from an old memorandum, that the Kinross

 ale-sellers, like their neighbours in other places in the kingdom,

 were up and valiant in their declamations against the malt tax.

 1726. The great military road to the north of Scotland, formed

 under the direction of General Wade, passes through Kinross. Previous

 to this period the road was "a cordouroy one, very narrow, full of

 heighs and how's, ruts and dubs."

 "If you had but seen the old road, before

 the new one was made,

 You would have held up your hands and

 blest General Wade."

 1727. Old Church of Kinross had its east gable and south wall


 1729. The Church of Orwell was re-built this year. (in Milnathort

 ð Ed)

 Church and Manse, Crook of Devon built.

 The Rev. Mr Francis Craig received a most harmonious call to the

 parish of Kinross. (See dates 1731, 1732, and 1733.)

 Great storm of wind; part of one of the outhouses of Lochleven

 Castle blown down. The Queich bridge at south end of the town

 "helped," i.e. repaired.

 An old memorandum, in referring to the early part of this year,

 says, "The good folks of Kinross were in a very uncomfortable frame

 of mind in consequence of the kirk dispute between the Rev. Messrs

 Craig and Stark." This case was long known as "The Kinr

 oss Kirk case," &c. (See dates 1732, 1733.)

 1731. Rev. Ebenezer Erskine, minister of Portmoak, translated to

 the Church of Stirling. He died in Stirling in 1754, aged 74 years.

 1732. Rev. Robert Stark admitted minister of Kinross. His

 settlement was the occasion of much division and strife. He was the

 author of "An essay on the 'Ethiopian' of the Acts of the Apostles."

 1733. The grounds at Blairadam "first planted with oak, ash,

 larch, elm, spruce, silver and Scotch firabout 1000 acres were


 Gairney Bridge, and origin of the Associate Synod. As previously

 noted, the church of Kinross was "vacant" in 1729, 1732. The

 congregation were in favour of the Rev. Francis Craig, "a man of

 great ability and eminent piety." The majority of the members o

 f the Synod were in favour of the Rev. Robert Stark, and ordered the

 Presbytery to induct him to the charge of Kinross. The majority of

 the Presbytery refused to act. The case was taken to the General

 Assembly which resulted in a "suspension" of four memb

 ers of the Assembly. The four "suspended brethren" continuing to

 refuse to ordain a minister against the wishes of a majority of the

 congregation, were at last declared "no ministers of the church of

 Scotland, and loosened from their charges." The names o

 f the ministers thus loosened from her charges for not acceding to do

 a violent act were the Reverends Ebenezer Erskine, Wilson, Moncrieff,

 and Fisher.

The Cottage at Gairney Bridge

On Tuesday, December 4th, 1733, (says the Rev. Ralph Erskine in

 his diary) I went with my brother to the Bridge of Gairney, where he

 and his other three brethren spent all the Wednesday in prayer and

 conference and also the Thursdayand thereafter, about

 two o'clock, came to the resolution of constructing themselves into

 a Presbytery, which accordingly they did, and Mr Mair and I were

 witnesses. They appointed their next meeting of Presbytery to be in

 Dunfermline, February the first Wednesday thereof.

 The 6th December 1733 is the date of the origin of the Secession

 Churchafterwards now called the U.P. Church. On December 6, 1733,

 the body had, of course, no place of worship. On December 6, 1833,

 when the Centenary was held, this body had 587 churches

 and 283,500 members!

 1736. Aldie Castle "was roofless" at this period, and

 consequently a ruin. Before the abolition of the heritable

 jurisdiction, a man was hanged here for the slight offence of

 stealing "a caup fu' o' corn." and when brought to the gallows, is

 said to have

 uttered a malediction upon the family, to the effect that the estate

 of Aldie should never be inherited by a male heir for nineteen


 Another note refers to the castle as "ane castel of marvilous

 strengthe," and that "the very names of its earlie proprietors are

 getting into oblivione"

 "Before time's breathlike blazing flax

 Man and his marvels pass away."

 1738. "The Associate Presbytery" sat at Orwell in September this


 Rev. Ralph Erskine of Dunfermline, moderator, January.

 1739. The first pair of "fanners" (winnowing machine) first

 introduced into the parish of Kinross. "At first it was viewed with

 considerable suspicion and distrust." In other places it was also at

 first much disliked.

 1740. A most severe frost of long continuance"loch frozen

 overthen came heavy falls of snow middle of January; again, hard

 frost all March." "The farmers lost many of the sheep and cows."

 Bad harvest, followed by a dearth; many families in "deplorable


 1741. The old parish church, on the promontory west end of the

 lochthe church of primitive Kinross, founded about the year 1240,

 had by the year 1741 become "unsuitable for a place of worship, being

 in need of repairs, uncomfortable, and too small for th

 e growing wants of the parish, and also in consequence of the town

 having receded from the church." At a meeting of the Presbytery, and

 heritors of the parish, it was resolved that "a new and larger church

 be built in the town of Kinross, on a site conven

 ient for the inhabitants." Thus ended the Ecclesiastical history and

 use of this venerable church, after having 'served its day and

 generation' for the long period of 500 years.

 The views of scenery from the "solitary walk" leading from the

 town of Kinross to "the auld kirkyard" has often been alluded to as

 "enchanting," as of "mild beauty," and that when "under the moonlight

 when all the air a solemn stillness holds," the views

 from this road to the old church yard are in no ordinary degree

 sweet and soothing. The pious poet, Copland, would have been

 delighted with such a "solitary walk" and old church yard. He would

 have "given voice to his thoughts" as he did on a similar "so

 litary way"

 "Here let me take my solitary way;

 To the lone church yard I do love to stray!

 Glad to indulge a serious thought the while,

 Beside where stood a venerable pile."

Old Churchyard

1742. "The Steeple Committee,"constituted at a public meeting of

 the inhabitants"the Rev. Mr Robert Stark, minister of the parish,

 elected to the chair; John Steedman, schoolmaster, appointed

 "Committee Clerk"when it was agreed "that considering it was

 in contemplation to build a new church, a steeple might with great

 propriety be added thereto." Many obstacles came in the way to

 prevent this being done at the completion of the new church; it was

 not until 1751 that the steeple was built. John Steedman,

 schoolmaster, appointed "committee clerk."*

 The new parish church built in the central situation on the west

 side of the thoroughfare through Kinross.

 1743. Rev. John Storer admitted minister of the united parishes

 of Tillibole and Fossoway, 25th August; died 8th June, 1778.

 1744. Cleish Manse re-built and offices repaired.

 Heritors in the Parish of Cleish"24 small proprietors."

 Potatoes planted in the garden of Kinross Housethe first

 planted in the county.

 1745. In "the '45" a great many "puir looking heeland sodgers" of

 the rebel army were in Kinross, and it seems they had " a nack of

 serving themselves without the assistance of waiters."

 About this period "a school was opened at Gairney Bridge by John

 Brown," afterwards the Rev. John Brown of Haddington, and Professor

 of Divinity to "the Associate Synod."

 1746. An old letter from David Duncan to John Henderson,

 Milnathort, dated 15th Feb. demands "quarters with bread and drink

 for about 70 or 80 soldiers."

 Michael Bruce, born at Kinnesswood, parish of Portmoak,

 Kinross-shire, on 27th March.

 1747. The "Secession Church," High Street, built.November.

 Collected on the occasion, £4 12s.

 1748. Rev. John Swanston ordained minister of the Secession

 Church, Kinross, 23rd January.

 The famine of this year, as in other places, was severely felt

 in Kinross-shire relief by contributions of money made to the poor.

 1751. The steeple of the church finished this year by the

 "Steeple Committee, after much care and assiduity." Height of steeple

 80 feet.

 Sir John Bruce of Kinross presented the town with a clock, which

 was in the latter end of the year put up in the new steeple.

 At a public meeting held this year it was ordered "that the bell

 in the steeple be rung henceforth at 5 o'clock in the morning; 8

 o'clock and 10 o'clock at night; and on Sundays at 8, 9, and 10

 forenoon; and that the last bell for divine service shall co

 ntinue ringing for a quarter of an hour."

 1755. Population of the county of Kinross, 5944; of the parish of

 Kinross, according to Dr Webster's tables, 1310; of Parish of

 Portmoak, 996; of Cleish, 520; of the parish of Orwell, 1891 souls.

 Cleish Church (Kinross-shire) rebuiltSee also 1832.

 1756. Kinross "Weavers Friendly Society" instituted 25th


 In the "Abridgement of the Chronicles of Scotland" published

 this year, referring to Kinross-shire are the following

 remarks:"There is Aldy, Cleish, the Loch of Lochleven, with a strong

 castle, abounding with all sorts of fresh fishes, with a new house

 adjacent thereto; the castle of Burleigh, the Lord Burleigh's

 residence, is on the north of the Loch," &c.

 A detachment of the "Sutherland Fencibles" pass through Kinross

 on their way to Edinburgh.

 1758. It would appear that "although the steeple was finished in

 1751, it had no weather-cock. The Steeple Committee this year got one

 put up by public subscription." At one of the meetings of the

 committee "The principal Lord of the Chapmen compeared, an

 d gave half-a-crown for carrying on the finishing of the steeple" 17


 1760. This year, there were 45 cutlers in Kinross, and 18 in the

 iron craft. "Kinross Whittles were highly prized, and sold at all the

 fairs, and hawked about the country."

 1762. That singular person known as "The Wandering Jew," in his

 journeyings this year passed through Kinross and Milnathort, and as

 usual was followed by crowds, and created great interest; but no

 doubt that he was an impostor of the worst sort. A writer

 of the period thus describes him"Tall and gaunt, turban on his head,

 solemn aspect, eyes kept fixed on the ground, long flowing beard, and

 wrapt up in a worn-out cloak or gown, on his feet were heavy sandals,

 which made a clattering noise when he walked;

 all that he was ever heard to say, and that in a moaning voice, was

 "Jack alone, poor jack alone," all the while with eyes fixed on the

 ground, no doubt to make an impression on his hearers, as if verses

 21st, 22nd of St John applied to him." Probably th

 e poet of "the period" had the "Jew" in his mind when he wrote

 "His feet like hammers strak the grund;

 The very moudawarts were stunn'd

 An wunder'd what it meant."

 1763. Great drought during the summer of this year. It would

 appear there "was not a drop of rain for nearly three months; and

 that the Queichs were dry to the bottom," and that "Lochleven receded

 much within its usual water line."

 1764. Rev. John Swanson appointed Professor of Divinity to the

 Secession Church. The Divinity Hall "was instituted in the large room

 of the Secession Church manse, now known as the "Lochleven Inn" (May


 Robert Adam, Esq., architect to the King, resigned his

 architectship, on being elected M.P. for the county of Kinross.

 1765. Michael Bruce, the poet, kept a small wayside school at

 Gairney Bridgehe had 28 scholarsJune.

 1767. Rev. John Swanson, minister of the Secession Church,

 Kinross, and Professor of Divinity to the Associate Synod, died

 suddenly at Perth, on June 12th. He was an eminent Divine. A volume

 of his sermons was published shortly after his death.

 Bridge at Crook o' Devon (New Fossoway), built.

 Michael Bruce died at Kinnesswood, Kinross-shire, on July 6th,

 aged 21 years. It would appear that his celebrated "Ode to the

 Cuckoo," as also "Lochleven no More," and some pieces of Scripture

 paraphrased, were composed between the years 1762 and 1767. S

 hortly after his death the Rev. John Logan called on his father at

 Kinnesswood and got from him a MSS. vol. of the poet's compositions

 with the view of publishing them "for the parents' benefit."

 In the year 1770 Logan published 17 of Bruce's poems, under the

 title of "Poems, on several occasions, by Michael Bruce," and sent 12

 copies to his parents. This was all the "benefit" conferred on them

 by Logan! In the year 1781 Logan republished them wi

 th a few additional ones, as his own!!! titled thus, "Poems, by the

 Rev. Mr Logan; Printed by Caddell, in the Strand, London, 1781." In

 this vol. there is a hymn claimed by Logan as his own, that was in

 circulation before he was born!!! After this, who ca

 n feel surprised at the "Logan deed" to Bruce? Over the memory of

 Logan "the literary delinquent," let a veil be drawn to cover his

 "manifold sins and transgressions," and let him rest. Suffice it to

 say that the works of Mackelvie and Grosart, Stephen, a

 nd Mackenzie, on Michael Bruce, throw a flood of light on Logan's

 "doings and dealings with his victim." They place beyond the reach of

 future dispute that Bruce was the author of the many sweet and

 inimitable compositions which had been filched and "fath

 ered" by Logan.

 1769. Thomas Pennant, Esq., the historian, passed the night of

 July 14th in Kinross, being on his journey collecting materials for

 his work, entitled, "A Tour in Scotland," from which, the following

 are a few detached extracts. He says: "Kinross is a smal

 l town, seated in a large plain, bounded by mountains; the houses and

 trees are so intermingled, as to give it an agreeable appearance. It

 has some manufactures of linen and cutlery ware. At this time was a

 meeting of Justices on a singular occasion; a va

 grant had been, not long before, ordered to be whipped, but such was

 the point of honour among the common people, that no one could be

 permitted to go to Perth for the executioner, who lived there, to

 press, I may say, two men for that service, was the ca

 use of the meeting; so Mr Boswell may rejoice to find the notion of

 honour prevail in as exalted degree among his own countrymen, as

 among the virtuous Corsicans.

 "Not far from the town is the house of Kinross, built by the

 famous architect Sir William Bruce, for his own residence, and was

 the first good house of regular architecture in North Britain.

 "Lochleven, a magnificent piece of water, very broad, but

 irregularly indented, is twelve miles in circumference and its

 greatest depth about 24 fathoms. Some islands are dispersed in this

 great expanse of water, one of which is large enough to feed seve

 ral head of cattle, but the most remarkable is that distinguished by

 the captivity of Mary Stuart, which stands in the middle of the lake.

 The castle still remains; consists of a square tower, a small yard

 with two round towers, a chapel, and the ruins of

 a building, where, it is said, the unfortunate princess was lodged.

 In the square tower is a dungeon, with a vaulted room above, over

 which has been three other stories. Some trees are yet remaining on

 this little spot, probably coeval with Mary, under w

 hose shade she may have sat, expecting her escape, at last effected

 by the enamoured Douglas. Historians differ in respect to the cause

 that influenced him to assist in his sovereign's escape. Some

 attribute it to his avarice, and think he was bribed with

 ewels reserved by Mary; others, that he was touched by a more

 generous passion; the last opinion is the most natural, considering

 the charms of the Queen, and the youth of the deliverer.

 "The fish of this lake are pike, small perch, fine eels, and

 most excellent troutthe best and the reddest I ever saw, the largest

 about six pounds in weight. The fishermen gave me an account of a

 species they called the gally trout, which are only caugh

 t from October to January, are split, salted, and dried for winter

 provision. The birds that breed on the isles are herring-gulls,

 pewit-gulls, and great terns, called here pictarnes.

 "Lay at a good inn, a single house, about half a mile north of

 Kinross, 14th July."

 It appears that Mr Pennant had been misinformed on some of the

 points he alludes to.

 1770. Wheat said to have been first sown in Kinross parish this


 According to several old notices, the common dress of men was of

 coarse fabric called "hodden grey," and consisted of an immense coat,

 wide folding-back sleeves, buttons the size of half-crowns. The

 waist-coat same, deep down, parting in the middle at th

 e bottom, with large pouches; and breeches called gun-mouthed breeks,

 tying over; rig and furrow worsted stockings below the knee; large

 stout shoessome tied, some held by clasps; the top-piece consisted

 of a flat worsted bonnet, about a foot and a half

 across the top; and thus equipped and gong on a long journey, a staff

 six feet long was used. The dress of women was coarse blue plaiding,

 petticoats and shortgown. The married women wore a close mutch, which

 on Sunday was ornamented with ribbons. Their S

 unday's dress consisted of linsey-woolsey, generally spun in the

 family and given out to weave. Tailors made the dresses of both men

 and women, at least the bridal dress. Inside of houses were to be

 seen, on rack shelves placed against the wall, large pew

 ter plates, plates of wood, bickers, and bowls, wooden candlesticks,

 and tables and chairs and stools a la period. Such was the "outs and

 in's" of old Scotland at this period, and for some time afterwards

consequently it also reflects the costumes of ga

 y Kinross in ye oulden tyme.

 1771. Mr Steedman, parish schoolmaster of Kinross, and first

 clerk of steeple committee (from 1742 to 1771) died 17th Jan. (Old

 Tolbooth building, Kinross, restored ð Ed)

 1772. The Parochial Registers of Kinross, previous to this period

 are irregular and not all extant, from 1772 they are complete.

 Mr John Taylor appointed parish schoolmaster of Kinross, 5th

 Nov. 1772, as also precentor and session clerk. He died 18th Nov

 1821. It will be thus seen that Mr Taylor had completed a true

 jubilee, viz., 49 years of service. (see date 1805.)

 Potatoes began to be cultivated in the open field around Kinross

 about the year 1772.

 1775. Cleish Church re-built. "The previous one had become

 incommodious and ruinous." (See 1832.)

 1776. An old topographical work notifies that down to the year

 1776 the county of Kinross was "verrie marshy and overrun with

 stagnant pools," and that in consequence, "fevers and agues were of

 too frequent occurrence."

 The Fly a chaise commenced running between Perth and

 Edinburghpassing through Kinross.

 1777. Kinnesswood school "found to be too small and

 inconveniently situateda new and larger one built at Scotlandwell in

 its stead," cost of which, including "blew slates" cartages &c., £80.

 (Known as Portmoak Parish School).

 1780. A large and splendid drawing of Lochleven Castle, as also

 of the oldest tree on the island, drawn this year by Andrew

 Rutherford. Below the view of the castle were the following lines:

 "I do love these ancient ruins;

 We never set our foot upon them but we set

 Our foot upon some reverend history;

 And question less here in these open rooms

 and courts,

 Persons of great renown had their reward,

 And moved about."

 Lochleven fishings were let this year at £20 per annum.

 Rev. Mr Graham ordained minister of the united parishes of

 Tulliebole and Fossoway, May 3.

 1782. At this period the ruins of an old circular Pictish

 building, 24 feet in diameter, were visible on a rising ground called

 Car-Leith (Caer-Lethe) on the estate of Aldie. This year the

 proprietor ordered the old stones to be carted away for the purpos

 e of making "fence dikes." On digging a little below the surface two

 stone coffins were found in the centre of the ruin, 4 feet long by 2

 feet broad, containing human bones and teethnothing known of these

 prehistoric remains.

 Bad harvest; the victual would not ripen; there were falls of

 snow afterwards known as the "snawy hairst."

 1783. An account discharged this year shows that oatmeal at

 Cleish sold at 14s 71/2d per boll.

 Kinross Hammermen's Friendly Society established 15th June.

 The old parish manse at the south end of Kinross was found to

 "need so much repair, and as it had been for sometime uncomfortable

 and too small, a new manse was ordered to be built."

 Population of the Parish of Portmoak, 1040 souls.

 1784. Rev. Archibald Smith inducted minister of Kinross.

 New Manse of the parish of Kinross built. (See date 1783.)

 On the Blairadam estate there were 584 acres of plantation laid

 down this year.

 1785 James Cameron, M.D., the eminent physician, born at Craigie,

 Kinross-shire, October, 1785, died in New York, 12th December, 1851,

 aged 66 years.

 Great flood in the Devon, 14th Sept. An old account of this

 remarkable rise in the waters of the Devon, says:"The rain began

 about 4 o'clock in the morning, about 9 the river was increasing with

 great rapidity, at 10 it had covered the marks noticed in

 a former great flood; at 12 o'clock the water was at its height,

 being 18 inches perpendicular above what it has been known to rise

 for many years, or about 61/2 feet above the usual water line. It

 carried along with it grain from the fields, a great many

 trees, sheep, &c. The gurgling water, by ploughing up the banks and

 surface of the ground on its foaming and rapid career, was changed

 into a deep brown colour," &c.

 "tumbling brown the burn came down,

 And roar'd frae bank to brae."

 Great snowstorm in Dec., followed by 118 days frost.

 1786. Map or plan of the parish of Fossoway, drawn by Mr Stobie,

 factor to the Duke of Athol.

 1787. Robert Burns, the poet, arrived in Kinross from Perth on

 his way to Edinburgh on Saturday 15th September. He was shortly

 afterwards siezed with "a fit of colic." He stayed all night in

 Kinross, and left in the forenoon of Sunday 16th, for the south.

 As elsewhere, "the good folks of Kinross were vehement in their

 denunciations of the bill for the emancipation of the Papists," the

 Roman Catholic Emancipation Bill passed in 1788.

 1788. Lochleven fishings let this year at £80 per annum.

 The Centenary of the Revolution. A public fast, 20th May, and in

 memory of King William, "our great deliverer."

 One of our notes states that David Beveridge of Kinross"weaver,

 cutler, perpetual motion seeker, and several other things," died this

 year, at an advanced age. It seems that he had tormented himself all

 his life scheming for perpetual motion, but as usu

 al, without result, as all his predecessors had done, and all

 followers will do after him. It seems from the note that "when Davit

 was asked how he was getting on with his perpetual motion," he would

 say "juist a pin wanted till complete it;" at another t

 ime it was "juist a screw that was needed," and so on, toiling at a

 phantom. The foolish hunt after perpetual motion may be likened to

 "Dropping buckets into empty wells,

 And growing old in drawing nothing up."

 The minister of Crook-o'-Devon (New Fossoway), referring in a

 paper to the antiquities in his parish at this period, notes them to

 be as followsviz., "The Palace Brae, Car-Leith, Hall-Yard, Monk's

 Grave, Gallows Knowe, Trooper's Dubb, and the Reformatio

 n Clogg."

 A map of Tullibole parish drawn by John Bell, land surveyor,

 Edinburgh, showing its conjunction with the county of Kinross.

 1789. Sir John Sinclair, in Kinross, regarding statistics for his

 for his celebrated work, "Statistical Account of Scotland."

 Umbrellas introduced into the district of Kinross "by the

 proprietor of Kinross House, and the unco sight was the cause of

 astonishment and laughter to the people."

 Captain Francis Grose, F.S.A., was in Kinross in the summer of

 this year, collecting memoranda for his celebrated work, "The

 Antiquities of Scotland,"published in 2 vols., quarto, 1796. He has

 in his work an excellent view of Lochleven Castle. The great

 er part of his remarks on Kinross are confined to a detail of the

 siege in 1335. He concludes his observations in noting that "the

 castle in 1790, when the drawing was made, consisted of a rectangular

 wall, enclosing a small area, flanked by little towers

 , some of them round; with some ruined walls, said to be those of the

 chapel, and apartment where Queen Mary was confined. The keep is a

 square tower; it stands in the north-east end of the area; and in it

 as I have read (for I could not get in to see it)

 , there is a pit or dungeon and a vaulted room over it; the chief

 entrance is through a gate on the north side. On the outside of the

 castle, chiefly towards the east, are several ancient trees,

 particularly the remains of an ash, which appears, when enti

 re, to have been of great size."

 The view of the castle in Grose's "Antiquities" is taken from

 the south side of the area of the castle court yard, on which spot

 stand the figures of three men viewing the ruins. The portly figure

 in the centre of the group appears to be that of the grea

 t Antiquary. (p 32)

 1790. William Michie, parish schoolmaster, Cleish. He received

 from his intimate friend, Robert Burns, the poet, the following

 humorous epitaph (for use when needed)

 "Here lies Willie Michie's banes;

 O Satan! when you tak him,

 Gie him the schulin o' your weans,

 For clever deils he'll mak them."

 "Great political commotion in Kinross, as in other places." (The

 doings in France the cause of much excitement).

 1791. Population of the parish of Kinross, 1792; at the end of

 1792 the population was 1839 souls; of the parish of Portmoak, 1105;

 of the parish of Cleish, 593; and of the parish of Orwell, 1737

 souls; of the County of Kinross, 6181.

 A cairn near "the Mains," 11/2 miles west of Cleish, was opened

 this year, when several urns containing human bones, charcoal, and

 ashes, were found. Four of the urns were under a great stone, the

 others under the cairn or heap of loose stones.

 In Kinross-shire, as elsewhere, the harvest commenced in the end

 of October. "Shearing in the midst of snowstorms, sleet and rain, the

 victual was stacked in a wet state, and everywhere were to be seen

 stacks smoking as if they had been on fire, long kno

 wn as the "Reekie Hairst."

 1792. Adam de Cardonnel was in Kinross in the autumn of this year

 on his tour, collecting materials for his work, "Picturesque

 Antiquities of Scotland, etched by Adam Cardonnel." In this work

 there is a small exterior view of the castle, with the followin

 g meagre remarks:

 "The castle of which this view is given, is built on a small

 island, situated almost in the middle of Lochleven. By whom, or at

 what period it was erected, is not known. In the reign of Robert III.

 a grant was made of it from the crown to Douglas, laird

 of Lochleven. This island is famous for being the place of captivity

 of Mary, Queen of Scots, and the ruins of a small building are shown

 as her prison. Besides this there are the remains of a chapel and a

 square tower, consisting of a dungeon, and three

 stories of apartments above, the whole encompassed with a wall."

 According to an old fly-leaf note, Niel Gow"the famous

 Niel"was at Kinross House, end of this year, "discoursing sweet

 music." There are several old notices of Niel. When he arrived at a

 place it was quite an event, he became the lion of the place; cro

 wds turned out to see Scotland's first fiddler, the man who would not

 play second fiddle to any one. He also appears, according to a "bard

 of the period," to have been a merry, hearty, jovial old gentleman

 "As merry an old sowl

 As e'er lifted a glass, or fathom'd a bowl!"

 1793. Lochleven fishing let this year at £100 per annum.

 Cleish Manse re-built, and offices repaired.

 Rev. Mr Hay ordained minister of the Secession Church, Kinross.

 Kinross streets, as also those in Milnathort, at this period

 were first lighted by "the cruisey of oil."

 1794. Great political agitation in Kinross, as elsewhere; and it

 seems that "shoemakers and cutlers of Kinross were valiant at such

 kind of work."

 Severe winter"a long continued frost. Lochleven and all its

 feeding burns" frozen up.

 1795. A memorandum of this year mentions that there were three

 schools in Kinross, and 208 scholars, "inclusive of the woman's


 "The Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, by Andrew Winton, Prior of

 Sancte Serf's Inch, Lochleven," published in 2 vols., 8 mo., by David

 Macpherson, from the original MS. in the Advocates' Library of

 Edinburgh. (See also date 1424.)

 1796. "The Great North Road through the county repairing in many

 places to make it more easy for the stage coaches, &c., to run on


 According to a census taken at the end of this year, the

 population of the town of Kinross was 1437.

 1797. Trade bad in Kinross, many weavers, shoemakers, and cutlers

 idle. Indifferent harvest.

 "The Lochleven Penny." This year a Kinross merchant issued a

 token, having on it, "a castle in ruins, and trees on an island, and

 Lochleven Penny, 1797, and Queen Mary imprisoned in the Isle and

 Castle, A.D., 1567, Ex P. K. fecit." (Condor p. 53.)

 "A general view of the agriculture of the county of Kinross, "

 published by "Daniel Ure, minister of Upsal, 1797." This is a small

 quarto work, full of interesting agricultural and other statistics.

 1798. "A secret society known to exist in Kinross in 1798, called

 "Friends of the People," had classic names bestowed on its members.

 Such asPompey, Cato, Mark Antony, &c. "They in imagination divided

 the property around Kinross among themselves!"

 1799. "On 4th March, this year, oatmeal was sold in Kinross at

 15s, and bear meal at 12s the boll; beef, 3d the 1b."

 "The mail coach with the mail bags commenced running through

 Kinross on the July Fair day. Previous to this period the mail bags

 were carried in a one-horse light cart; two deal boards were in the

 centre, to which the bags were strapped, the post-boy sit

 ting on them, driving."

 The "Kinross Friendly Society" instituted, 2d Sept.

 1800. The dearth year. "On 1st March, 1800, oatmeal in Kinross

 rose to 52s, and bear meal to 34s 6d the boll, potatoes 20s the


 Lochleven surveyed this year, and the water found to cover an

 area of 3308 acres, or a little above 5 square miles.

 1801. Population of the Parish of Kinross this year, 2124 souls;

 of the Parish of Portmoak, 1151; of the Parish of Cleish, 625; and of

 the Parish of Orwell, 2036 souls; of the County, 6725, May, 1801.

 1802. The "Elf Knowe, (or Fairy Knowe), a little to the East of

 Annafrech, was opened, and found to contain a coffin of unhewn

 stones, in which were some bones, interspersed with charcoal."

 A very bad harvest. Oatmeal sold at 3s 4d per peck, and

 everything else dear in proportion. A subscription for the poor of

 the Parish.

 1803. Lochleven fishings were let this year at £143 per annum.

 Rev. James Hall in Kinross this year, on his tour in Scotland

 collecting notes for his afterwards published work, entitled,

 "Travels in Scotland by an unusual route." The following are a few of

 his remarks on Kinross taken from this work:

 "Kinross seems to be a thriving place. There are considerable

 manufactures here of linen, leather, shoes, and above all, of

 hardware, particularly cutlery, for which it has been long famous.

 Kinross scissors, razors, and pen knifes are in greater request

 in Scotland than those of Sheffield. I presume that they both can

 and do make as good articles at Sheffield and other places in

 England, but perhaps the manufacturers find it to their interest on

 the whole, to furnish the Scots with articles, though of a

 n inferior quality, very cheap. But this, I should think, must be a

 kind of economy.

 The fishery of the lake is rated at one hundred and forty three

 pounds a year by the landlord of the inn, to whom the trout is of

 great value. The inn is a little way to the north of the town and is

 as good as any that I have seen in England neat, clea

 n rooms both public and bedrooms spacious, and an excellent

 larder and cellar. Besides butcher's meat and fish of all kinds there

 is always a variety of game. This inn is equi-distant from Perth and

 the Queensferry, being sixteen miles from each.

 Very near the margin of the lake stands Kinross House, a grand

 and very elegant mansion, built by Sir William Bruce in the end of

 the seventeenth century, to which you are led by a fine row of lofty

 trees, a spacious court, and one of the noblest stone s

 taircases anywhere to be seen.

 Lochleven is near the town of Kinross. The unfortunate Mary,

 Queen of Scots, was for some time detained a prisoner in a castle on

 an island in the middle of it. On the second of May, 1568, about

 seven o'clock, when the governor was at supper with his fam

 ily, George Douglas, having got hold of the keys of the Castle,

 hastened to her apartment and conducted her out of prison and ferried

 her over in a boat to the mainland, throwing the keys of the Castle

 into the lake." These keys were accidentally dragged

 out of the loch not long ago. Mr Hall, when in Kinross, appears not

 to have heard of the keys being thrown into the loch, as it is in a

 foot-note that he alludes to "the find." His travels in Scotland were

 not published until 1807, and it is evident by no

 ticing the find in a foot-note that it was an after jotting he had

 made having seen the newspaper paragraphs of the period referring

 to said keys. "The walls of the Castle, half shaded by a grove of

 lofty trees, in which it is embosomed, and which cover

 nearly the whole island, form a very striking object. The whole

 circle of the castle is 585 feet. There is another island at the east

 end of the loch, called St Serf's Isle, containing about 48 acres."

 Great thunderstorm, "the greatest ever known in Kinross (July),

 succeeded by a great warmth and a luxuriant harvest everywhere."

 1804. Rev. Dr Buchanan ordained minister of the Parish of


 1805. "The Keys of Lochleven Castle were found by a boy named

 William Honeyman, in the autumn of this year, near the water margin

 of the Loch, a little to the east of the old churchyard. The summer

 and autumn of this year were very dry, and the water of t

 he Loch was uncommonly low, and had receded about ten feet from the

 usual water mark on the shore. It was on this now exposed space that

 the keys were found. The bunch of keys was carried immediately to Mr

 John Taylor, the parish schoolmaster, they were v

 ery rusty, and were fastened by an iron ring, which mouldered away on

 being rubbed by the hand.

 Mr Taylor after having them in his possession for some time,

 sent them to the then Earl of Morton, heritable keeper of Lochleven

 Castle, from whom he received a suitable gratuity to the finder, £5

 to the poor, and handsome silver ink-holder to himself."

 Regarding these "find of keys," it requires to be remarked that

 there are historical and other circumstances opposed to their

 reception as being those of Lochleven Castle. Until such obstacles

 are cleared away, placing their identity beyond the possibili

 ty of future doubt, great must be the faith of those who believe in


 Apart from the historical difficulties in the way there is an

 item still that would somewhat puzzle a physicist, viz: Mary escaped

 from Lochleven Castle in 1568, and these keys were found in 1805,

 giving a period of 237 years between the two events. Sup

 pose these keys to have been subjected to the continued action of the

 water, and attrition of the sandy margin of the Loch for 237 years;

 query, how many grains of said keys would remain in 1805?

 The keys in question were probably those of the great baronial

 castle of Newhouse, which, until 1723, stood on the promontory at a

 short distance from where they were found. The keys of this

 stronghold of the Earls of Morton would be somewhat similar in

 size to the keys of the castle on the island; thus their great size,

 and forgetting the existence of this stronghold at the time of "the

 find," may have made the first handlers of them jump to the

 conclusion that they were the keys of Lochleven Castle. Fo

 r historical objections, see Appendix.

 "The Red and Black letter Day," an old Kinross memorandum in

 referring to this day says "the news of the battle of Trafalgar and

 the death of Nelson were brought to Kinross by one of the

 mail-coaches on November 1st, and as in other places great grief an

 d great joy prevailedgrief for the death of Lord Nelson and joy for

 the important victory he had gained. Such opposites of grief and

 joysuch extremes of feelingwere perhaps never experienced before."

 1806. Very stormy winter. "The continued high winds in the early

 part of the year did serious damage to house property, trees, &c. in

 the neighbourhood of Kinross."

 In Stark's "Gazetteer of Scotland," published this year, there

 are short articles on Kinross and Kinross-shire. It mentions that

 Kinross, the capital of the shire of the same name, is a small

 straggling town, pleasantly situated on a plain at the W. end

 of Lochleven, upon the great road from Queensferry to Perth from each

 of which it is distant fifteen miles.

 It was formerly famed for its cutlery manufacture. About thirty

 years ago that branch employed 30 or 40 hands, but it has declined

 since that time, and is now little practiced.

 The present manufacture (1806) is the coarse linens called

 Silesias, of which there is stamped on an average to the value of

 £4,441 annually.

 There are also some branches of the cotton manufacture lately


 Lochleven is a beautiful lake 12 miles in circumference."&c.

 Mr Robert Forsyth the Topographist was in Kinross this year,

 collecting notes for his workafterwards published in 5 volumes,

 octavo, entitled "The Beauties of Scotland."

 In referring to Kinross, he says, (in vol. IV.) "Kinross, which

 is the central and principal town, and capital of the county, is

 situated in 56° 15' north latitude and 3° 10' west longitude from

 London, (56° 12' 15" N.L. and 3° 25' 18"is the correct bear

 ing from Greenwich). Here is the seat of the Sheriff, Justice of

 Peace, &c. This town it would appear, formerly consisted of

 forty-seven steadings or tofts. That it did so is evident from an

 agreement mutually entered into in 1708, for the division of a c

 ommon called the Moors of Kinross, to which common each of the tofts

 had an equal right. Between sixty and seventy new houses have been

 added to the town within the last forty years. They are inhabited by

 150 families. The rents of the houses are from for

 ty shillings to seven pounds each. There are annually four fairs in

 the town which are well frequented, especially for cattle and horses.

 The principal manufacture in this county is that of coarse linen,

 commonly called Silesias, woven from twenty-seven t

 o thirty inches in breadth. Some coarse fabrics provincially called

 tweeds, harns, and straikens. A great deal of linen is woven for

 private use, as the people in general are very industrious, and make

 all their cloth for shirts, bed-linens &c., of yarn s

 pun in their own houses, and mostly of lint raised in the county.

 From the statistical account of the parish, it appears that about 400

 looms are employed in the weaving manufacture. Every three looms

 usually require the attendance of a person to wind, ya

 rd, and warp, the webs, &c., for them, so that the whole employment

 in this branch amounts to about 530 persons.

 "The Castle of Lochleven, now in ruins, stands upon an island in

 the middle of the loch, and is encompassed by a wall of stone nearly

 of a square form. The principal tower, which is a square building,

 stands upon the north wall, near its north-west corne

 r and there is a lesser round tower at the south-east. In the lower

 part of the square tower is an apartment or dungeon, with a well in

 it. Above this is a vaulted room which seems to have been used as a

 kitchen. Over this were formerly three stories. T

 he whole circuit of the outer rampart is 585 feet.

 "The circumstance that renders this castle particularly

 conspicuous in Scottish history is the confinement here of the

 unfortunate Queen Mary. In the secluded fortress she languished for

 months and was here compelled to sign an instrument resigning her c

 rown to her infant son and appointing Murray regent. Several attempts

 had been made to rescue her, which the vigilance of her keeper had

 rendered abortive. At last, on Sunday, 2d May, 1568, while her

 keepers were at supper, young Douglas found means to st

 eal the keys out of his brother's chamber, and opening the gate, the

 Queen and a female attendant reached a boat, prepared for the

 purpose, and threw the keys into the lake, having previously locked

 the doors, &c.

 The other villages in the County are trifling, excepting that of

 Milnathort, vulgarly pronounced Mills of Forth, from a rivulet upon

 which are several mills, and also a distillery. Many of the houses in

 this village are built of a white coloured freeston

 e, which gives it a cheerful appearance. Although a small village it

 has no less than three places of worship, besides the Parish Church.

 They belong to Burghers, Anti-burghers, and Cameronians."

 At page 25 of this work, "the Beauties of Scotland," there is a

 very fine view of Lochleven Castle, dated 1st August, 1806.

 The supposed keys were found in 1805. Forsyth published his

 volume in 1807, a year and a half after the keys were found, and he

 of course merely gives the current report regarding them.

 1807. The counties of Kinross and Clackmannan united under one


 Lord Chief Commissioner Adam, of Blairadam, elected M.P. for the

 united counties of Kinross and Clackmannan.

 1808. Cairnie-Vaen, on the Ochils, in the north part of Orwell

 Parish, until this year was a conspicuous object of interest to the

 antiquary. This year the proprietor carried away many hundred

 cart-loads of the Cairn stones for the purpose of building dik

 es. The following doggerel by some ancient "unletter'd muse" continue

 to be repeated in the locality.

 In the Dry Burn Well beneath a stane,

 You'll find the key of Cairn-a-vain,

 That will make a' Scotland rich ane by ane.

 However no treasure was found, although eagerly expected by the

 workmen. There was a rude stone coffin found in the centre of the

 Cairn, containing an urn full of bones and charcoal, and amongst

 these was found a small ornament of bone, about four inches

 long, very much resembling the figure of a cricket-bat, and notched

 in the edges. This was in much better preserve than the other bones.

 1809. It would seem from an old memorandum of this date that "the

 cutlery trade of Kinross was fast dying out," and that in a few years

 "it would be no more."

 The Jubilee of King George III. "held in Kinross with jovial

 demonstrations, drinking of the King's health, bonfires, firing of

 real guns and pop-cannons, squibs and sky rockets." The Kinross

 folks, an old note says, "were not behind any place in the Kin

 gdom for their loyalty on this occasion," 25th Oct.

 1810. The North Queich Bridge repaired. "The South Queich Bridge

 was thought too far gone to waste repairs on it."

 Glenochel, a poem descriptive of remarkable objects in Kinross

 and Clackmannan shires published by J. Kennedy.

 "Tambouring and spinning at the spinning wheel" gave employment

 to a great many of the female population at this period.

 1811. The old bridge of three arches over the South Queich at the

 South end of the town built in 1687 by Sir William Bruce of Kinross

 House, was in a ruinous state, was condemned, ordered to be removed,

 and a new bridge built.

 Population of the parish of Kinross, 2214 souls; of the town,

 about 1550; of the parish of Portmoak, 1273; of the parish of Cleish,

 648; and of the parish of Orwell, 2172 souls; population of the town

 of Milnathort, 1199; of the county of Kinross, 7245.

 Rev. Dr Buchannan, minister of Kinross, commenced a process at

 law for the augmentation of his stipendnot set